One of the greatest civilizations in the history of humankind, Ancient Roman Civilization began off as a residential community on the banks of the Tiber River in Italy, toward the start of the eighth century BC. Before long, after innumerable wars and military battles, it covered the whole mainland Europe around the Mediterranean, a tremendous piece of western Asia and northern Africa and all of Britain. Much intriguing are the different realities and aspects about the Roman civilization and the way of life of ancient Roman individuals. From the stupendous fightsof the Roman gladiators, to the convoluted dinner gatherings, to the well-known and outrageous emperors – a stroll through the Roman history is without any doubt an entertaining go-through.Here I bring you the list of 10 facts about Ancient Rome that you didn’t know.

Founders of Rome


Roman civilization has its establishment centered around myth and legends rather than facts. A standout amongst the most prominent legends says that ancient Rome bugged out on April 21, 753 BC – a myth that gets upheld by the archeological findings of early settlement follows in Palatine Hill which goes back to around 750 BC. Two extremely intriguing establishing legends exist in the old Roman mythos – Aeneas and ‘Romulus and Remus.’

The first one expresses that two demigod siblings, Romulus and Remus, established the framework of Rome. Be that as it may, then they had a monstrous contention about who gets the chance to govern the city. Romulus wound up slaughtering Remus and named the new settlement after himself. It is ostensibly the best known ancient stories on the history of Rome, yet there is likewise the legend of Aeneas. Aeneas of Troy legends does no repudiate Romulus and Remus, yet rather states Aeneas of Troy as their precursor, connecting the myths of Rome and Troy together.

Medical practices


Even though a hefty portion of their medical activities were genuinely misinformed, individuals in ancient Rome came up with some progressive medicinal practices that made them comparable to gifted medical experts from the ancient Greece. Roman medicinal experts showed great inventiveness when it came to fixing real injuries and wounds. They built up somewhat peculiar, however helpful medicinal apparatuses like the abnormally named and fearsome looking ‘Vaginal Speculum’. Not all the Roman “specialists” were respected by normal individuals – the majority of them were considered fakes and liars. Nonetheless, the specialists in the Roman armies were highly regarded for the abilities they showed in recuperating the harmed fighters in the war zones. They introduced the idea of bandages made of spider web, honey and vinegar– a mix that turned out to be essential in fast recovery. Truth be told, their medicinal accomplishments did make up the base for resulting military medical practices for about two centuries.

The phallus charm

The ancient Romans weredeliberately superstitious even though they made some immense advances in engineering and medicinal sectors. One of the most common superstitions among the Romans was that great wellbeing and fortunes had a huge connection with phallus – an everlasting charm in the ancient Rome.

It was well known among Roman families to hang wind bells that dragged different phallic jujus to ward of any sinful or evil impacts to their families. Not that all the wind bells had phallic bells – other objects, like bird wings and lion’s feet were additionally utilized as rings. There likewise used to be a consecrated phallus that the priestesses of goddess Vesta would preserve as a confirmation to the goodwill and security Rome.

Urine tax


The normal people in ancient Rome needed to pay a specific measure of expense for using open urinals. Back then, pee was taken as a product for its different uses. Every one of the urinals would result in cesspools from where fluid used to be gathered (alongside from the cesspools of private toilets in high society Roman inhabitants) and after that reused for different biochemical purposes.

Hair fibers likewise were used to be removed by animal skins dipped in urine. Processed urine was broadly utilized for clothing purposes since it was a wellspring of smelling salts, which was exceptionally convenient in dying and cleaning woolen articles of clothing. So therefore, first Emperor Nero and after that Vespasian imposed the urine tax. 



Famous for its contemporary design and architecture, the ancient Rome laid a strong foundation for other civilizations in the time to come. Inventing and implementing advance architectural practices to their utmost extent, the essential architectural accomplishments that emerged in Roman civilization are the adjusted arches (utilized as a part of structures like the Colosseum, sewers and aqueducts) and the wide road system that ended up being critical in building up Rome as we see it today.

Widely known for its solid and enduring built, the Roman concrete, upon examining bits of Roman solid, were found to be covered somewhere down in the Mediterranean Sea for over 2000 years. Specialists found that it was more tough and naturally amicable than today’s concrete. During an era when cutting edge solid structures are intended to keep going for at most two or three centuries, those ancient Roman concrete structures could endure over two centuries of seawater.



The prevalence of clothing was specifically identified with its straightforwardness and simplicity to wear in the ancient Roman world. For the most part, two sorts of garments were famously worn by old Romans – toga and tunic. The toga was taken as an unmistakable Roman attire which just genuine Roman natives were permitted to wear publicly. It was particularly worn on state events and thus could be taken synonymous to cutting edge tuxedos. Given their configuration and composition, togas clearly weren’t the most agreeable of dresses, however the old Romans wanted to flaunt the status and force that they picked up on wearing togas openly. Togas came in two essential colors – purple and white. Purple dresses used to be an image of sovereignty and used to be saved just for emperors and legislators with huge impacts. For any other person, wearing a purple Toga was viewed as an extremely punishable action.The Tunic however was the standard dress for individuals – generally worn by non-citizens and all the time. It was also worn by Roman nationals inside their homes.



The ancient Romans are said to be the first ever to develop and utilize the idea of a supermarket. Even though a complex of structures was built around 107-110 CE in the Trajan rule, there already were a wide range of shops in Rome that sold various things.There used to be a housed complex where an entire business sector would inside its premises, alongside little shops in the front and a private roof space. This was a good instance of eye-pleasing design in ancient Rome. At the crest of its quality, this market had over 150 shops in the complex.

The essential items sold at the Trajan’s supermarket used to descend from the whole way across the Roman Empire. The most well-known were nourishment items, for instance, organic products, vegetables, wine, fish, oil and different spices could be bought there. Since this structure was assembled utilizing Roman designing systems and Roman concrete – it stands right up to the present time as a confirmation to the strength of ancient Roman engineering.

The Dine of the Rich


The standard eating regimen for a normal national of ancient Rome used to comprise of basic staple foods like grain, wheat, posca and bread. Fish and meat used to be uncommon dishes for poor people. Despite that, the rich Romans could bear the cost of basically anything and every one of them cherished flaunting their wealth and ways of life. So they would have lavish supper gatherings where their slave cooks would cook astonishing foods and luxuries for the distinguished visitors.

The dining room of the ancient Romans used to be essential gathering space loaded with appealing designs, for example, wall paintings, floor mosaics and other extravagance fine arts. At that point, the supper would be set up in three extravagant courses and such sumptuous cooking styles were filled more with the need to add flashiness to the supper party than to fulfill the ravenousness of visitors. Truth be told, it mattered significantly more to the rich Romans that their dinners mirrored a fabulous exhibition, the taste was quite often an optional undertaking.

A womanly Emperor


The stories of Caligula’s rule for its different notorious and antics have lived right up ’til the present time. Despite the fact that he began as a famous emperor, truth be told he was worshipped by all in his initial tenet, but soon his conduct turned out to be so improper and nonsensical that practically everybody trusted he had gone crazy. That happens when you are the preeminent pioneer of such a huge empire, however your essential concern is to instate your counsel and priest in the Roman senate. He showed up out in the public dressed as a lady, and relinquished the standard toga for luxurious outfits. He even had ordered his gatekeepers to usewomanly hand-signals when waving at each other. He likewise met an unpleasant end when he was killed on account of Praetorian Guards and a few representatives who left his body to rot in the road.

10 Left-handed people


The left-handed individuals have confronted social predisposition as all everyday instruments and devices are made for right-handed people throughout the history. In any case, this partiality against lefties go way past that. They were viewed as unfortunate or wicked by the right-handed individuals that made up for more than 90% of the total people. In ancient Rome, people were prejudged to be unfortunate and deceitful if they were left handed.

In spite of the fact that history books say that old Romans really supported the left handed ones, it isn’t actually true. Left-handed people had such a terrible imagery, to the point that the ancient Romans and even Greeks really wore the wedding ring on their left hand’s third finger all to avoid the sins that came from lefties.


The stories of gods and goddess from the ancient Greek mythology are immensely popular in pop culture. Their characters were popularized and subsequently immortalized by some famous play writers in ancient Greece that included the likes of Homer and Hesiod. What makes the folklore behind these ancient Greek deities stand apart is the way their stories deviated from that of other contemporary ancient religions. The Greek gods resembled humans not only in their form but also in their nature and emotions. Many of us might remember how Theseus slayed the Minotaur, how Hades would rule the underworld, the wrath Zeus would bring upon others with his mighty thunder and many more – all those exciting stories we read when we were kids. Since the goddesses were such grand personas in themselves, it is only fair to list out them separately on our next post. As for the majestic Gods of ancient Greece, lets see how many of your favorites make it on our top 10 list of ancient greek gods names.

1  Zeus


He was the god of all known universe that the Olympians won off the titans. After winning over the titans, Zeus also won the draw with his brothers Hades and Poseidon on who gets to be the ruler of throne after their father Kronos, and thus became the god of all skies and the acknowledged ruler of all remaining gods. He was married to Hera, the Queen of all gods, but he also was rather notorious for his romantic escapades outside his marriage. He was known as father of gods, and as you might have noticed by now, he fathered quite a many children with as many of his affairs. Being the grand personification of nature as it is, he constructed the order that became the basis for the different realms. He also embarked the age of regulated time in the form of changing seasons and repeating days and nights. He ruled with absolute authority and command over his universe. But he also had a bad temper and was very easy to provoke. He would respond by hurling thunderbolt at those who displeased him.

2 Poseidon


When Zeus and his brothers drew straws to decide who gets to be the lord of which realm, Poseidon drew the realm of seas. Thus he became the ruler of seas and, along with his wife Amphitrite, led a group of lesser gods that included the Triton and Nereid. Being the lord of seas, he was widely worshiped and followed by seamen and voyagers alike. But he also had a far reaching influence – historians state him as a major deity in several ancient Greek cities. In terms of sheer power, he came second only the mighty Zeus. Other than taming the enormous power of seas, he also carried a trident whose mere hit would cause massive earthquakes. At some point, he desperately fell for Demeter who asked him to create the most unique creature if he was to rouse her. It is said he made a number of animals in his quest and finally created the first majestic horse.

3 Hades


Following the advent of age of Olympian gods, Hades became the ruler of underworld – a place where only the dead could delve in (though there were quite a few exceptions to that). Naturally, ruling over such a gloomy and rather demented realm seldom makes a charming impression – making him lesser prominent in the Greek mythology. But many Greeks believed him to be the personification of death itself (which he was not) and paid him regular homage raised by their own superstition. But his evil image is a far cry from what he actually was – for he was not much of a bad guy as he is usually depicted to be. Contrary to the common belief, it Hades was not responsible for redemption of souls but rather the three demigods Minos, Aiakos and Rhadamanthys would carry out the judgment. He was also pretty fair in his actions when Hercules approached him with the motive to return with his three-headed dog as a part of his labors. Though that does not cut any slack off him when he tricked his love interest Persephone into the underworld to stay with him.

4 Dionysus


Being the god of festivity, pleasure and wine, he was quite a popular deity – both among gods and mortals. He is the only god who had a mortal parent in the form of his mother Semele, his father being the mighty Zeus. He was bought up under the protection of mountain nymphs since Hera was rather ferocious towards her husband’s romantic advances outside their marriage. Dionysus slowly built a cult of followers and wanderers who would accompany him in his journeys around the world. Unlike other gods, he was far more present among his followers – feasting, drinking and living his life to the fullest with them. And then he irrevocably fell in love with Ariadne, who was despicably abandoned by Theseus when she fell asleep on the islands of Naxos. The Greeks celebrated many festivals in his honor and it would not be an overstatement to say that he was far more popular than Zeus at many places of ancient Greece.

5 Apollo


The twin brother of Artemis, Apollo was a god with many facets. His father was, again, Zeus and he was born off his mother Leto on the island of Delos – the only refuge they could find from an enraged Hera (no surprises there). Leto was so overwhelmed with the care she got at the hands of inhabitants of Delos; she promised that Apollo shall always favor their prosperity, which he did in the times to come. As stated earlier, Apollo has many facets which were rather opposing in themselves. He was the god of serenity and music and was often depicted with a lyre. And he also was a skilled archer who often wandered with a silver bow. He was considered the god of healing and medicine but when enraged, he would bring upon death and despair with his arrows. He would harness his four-horse chariot and move the sun across the sky every single day – providing the light and life to earth. Being a prophetic god, he was a celebrated figure among the oracles and they established Delphi as a site dedicated to worshiping him.

6 Prometheus


One of the most popular gods among the titans, Prometheus is held significantly higher among the great benefactors of mankind in the Greek mythology. His father Iapetus was also a titan but his mother was an oceanid. Being the god of forethought, he foresaw defeat of titans at the hands of new Olympian gods. So he cleverly sided with the Olympians through the battle and thus escaped from being imprisoned at Tartarus along with other titans.

Prometheus was then assigned the task to mold mankind out of clay. Once he was done creating mankind, he became rather attached with them, always worried for the betterment of their lives. This led him to cross paths with the mighty Zeus time and again since he did not care much about the humans. So when Zeus took away fire from mankind, he stole it from the heavens and gave it back to the humans. Zeus punished him for his treachery by chaining him to a rock where an eagle would eat his liver everyday – his liver regenerating every night for he was an immortal. Eventually, he was freed from his agony by the powerful demigod Hercules.

7 Ares


Born of Zeus and Hera, Ares was also known as the god of war. But he reflected the violent and gore aspect of war far more than the justification and righteousness of violence for the greater good. He was always willing to wreak havoc just to display his might in the battle and rarely thought of fighting for justice and defense. His acts of imprudence led both his parents to despise him and look up to his sister Athena. Despite his personification of sheer ruthlessness in war, he also came across as a coward especially given how outrageously he would respond even to the slightest of injuries in battle. He was also blindly in love with Aphrodite, who was already married to Hephaestus. Their affair was not so secret among the Olympians and led to much disdain. As evident, Ares was never much popular among men or gods and was not much followed or worshiped by any larger mass.


8 Hephaestus


Popular in the Greek folklore by the name of God of fire, Hephaestus was associated with the realms of heaven. His origin has been given contradicting renditions by Homer and Hesiod. Homer narrates his story as the crippled son of Zeus and Hera. Hesiod takes a rather unconventional (and far more intriguing) route by stating that Hera bore him alone by herself. He was born a limp, which led his mother to throw him off Mount Olympus, though in a different account he once interceded a brawl between Zeus and Hera and ended up getting dragged off Olympus by the mighty Zeus. Once he fell on earth, he went on to become a prodigal craftsman, and was eventually reinstated in the heaven where he then built a number of marvelous for gods and goddesses. He also created those majestic god armors and shields – most famous of them being the one donned by Achilles in the battle of Troy.

9 Hermes


Also known as the messenger among ancient Greek gods, Hermes was the son of Zeus and Maia. He has been depicted in rather noticeable contrasts in different poems, plays and myths. Popularly, he comes across as a handsome and athletic, beardless youth and sometimes as an older bearded man. Hermes was a quick thinker and even quicker in his movements, and was notorious among gods for his cunning. Since he could easily move in between the three main worlds in mythological paradigm of ancient Greece – heaven, seas and the underworld, he often acted as messenger for gods. Given the cunning tricks he would pull off on fellow gods for his own amusement, one could find stark similarities between him and the much popular Norse god Loki. Just to give a glimpse of how dubious his tricks could be, he jumped out of his crib when he was born, stole Apollo’s cattle and went back to his crib playing all innocent. No wonder he was also known as the god of cunning and thievery.

10 Cronos


One of the more widely known among the ancient titans, Cronos was the ruling god before the age of Olympian deities. The titans were known for their colossal bodies and equally massive brute strength – among whom Cronos proved himself to be the strongest when he became the ruler by castrating his own father Uranus. But once he came into power, much like his despised progenitor, Cronos became rather prudent towards his children – the most noticeable ones being Zeus, Poseidon and Aphrodite among others. In his utter paranoia, he swallowed them to keep them from ever surpassing him. But his mother Gaia and wife Rhea were able to rescue Zeus who fought him off and banished him to the dreaded Tartarus in the underworld once he had freed his siblings. The end of Cronos heralded the age of Olympian deities who would go on to be far more popular in Greek mythology than their predecessors ever were.








The second Punic war was one of the grievous wars battled in the history of the entire world. Until the definitive minute arrived, the destiny of the war relied upon the balance of a quantity of various fights. It wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that the Carthaginians were the top choices to win this war from the earliest starting point, just to flounder later more definitive phases of the war. The war has always been a topic of discussion amongst the legends and the students of history. To such an extent that as indicated by Livy, it was “the most noteworthy of all the wars that were ever fought – the war which the Carthaginians, under the acquitof Hannibal, kept up with the Roman individuals.

With a long history of fights that went on for over a century, ancient Rome and Carthage fought a total of three wars from 264 BC to 146 BC. These wars were known as Punic wars. The second Punic war was battled from 218 BC to 201 BC and is most associated with the tremendous fights battled between the Carthaginians under Hannibal and the Romans under various officers. Despite the fact that Hannibal’s armed force attacked Italy from the north and resoundingly vanquished the Roman armed force in a few fights, he would never accomplish a definitive objective of bringing about a political break amongst Rome and its partners. There were three fundamental fronts in this war – Italy, where Hannibal vanquished Romans in rehashed fights; Hispania, where Hannibal’s more youthful sibling protected Carthaginian provincial urban areas with energy; and Sicily, where Roman never lost their matchless quality.

As history has it, there have been numerous events during the wars that can’t simply be ignored. Here are 10 major events of the 2nd Punic war.

The aftermath

second punic war aftermath hispania

Before the end of the war, Hispania wasn’t under Carthage, and Rome had gotten a handle on its control over an expansive range that was already inside Carthage. Moreover, Rome forced various assents upon the Carthaginians to impair them from bringing about any further uprisings. They forced a war repayment on them, constrained their naval force to 10 transports (those 10 boats were saved so Carthaginians could ward off conceivable privateer assaults) and denied Carthage from amassing any kind of armed force without the authorization of Rome.

Carthage disregarded these assents and raised an armed force about a large portion of a century later, which prompted the third Punic war. In any case, without a solid initiative and the fantastic size of assets they had in the past wars, Carthage could just put a battle only for three years. The Romans totally demolished it by 146 BC, in this manner stepping forward to a definitive mastery of the ancient Mediterranean world.

Rise and fall of Hannibal

For the individuals who witnessed the whole incidents of second Punic war, the greatest scene was the ascent of Hannibal as a skilled pioneer and a guile strategist in addition to his consequent fall that turned out to be increasingly inescapable as the war neared its conclusive period. He was a minimal known figure amongst the Romans in the starting of the war, and had he not walked over the Alps – one of the most daring and shrewd acts in that war, he might not have possessed the capacity to send blows after blows into the Roman safeguard particularly towards the starting of the war. His men saw him draw the Romans into traps, and beat them unexpectedly.

However, notwithstanding this point of interest, the Carthaginians couldn’t stay away from a definitive annihilation in conclusive fronts. The inquiry stays right up ’til today – did Hannibal imprudently misuse the force of Carthage? Were the smart strategist’s fanciful triumphs additionally the purpose behind the defeat of this once mind blowing realm? Despite the fact that how military virtuoso Hannibal was, he needed to confront the possible fall that prompted a gigantic misfortune for the Carthaginians in the second Punic war.

Battle of Zama (202 BC)

The war was at a conclusive point in 2016 BC. The Romans military under Scipio had taken a great deal of lessons from Hannibal’s strategies and were prepared to fight and beat the Carthaginians in the last confrontation. The greatest help to the Romans was the backing of Massyli tribe, who had initially battled alongside the Carthaginians however agreed with the Romans after the clash of Ilipa. Their backing at the clash of Zama turned out to be most critical to Roman achievement.

Contrary to the most fights from the Second Punic War, the Romans worked out better with their warriors and the Carthaginians had a bigger number of infantries. The Roman armed force constituted a power that was prevalent both as far as arms and aptitudes, when contrasted with the Carthaginians. Hannibal most likely predicted this, and he was likewise persuaded that his men won’t have the capacity to thrust the Roman protection. So he declined to lead his armed force into fight.

Battle of Cannae (216 BC)

The battle of Cannase was one of the greatest triumphs for Hannibal and his partners that took place on the banks of the waterway Aufidus in 216 BC. The Roman strengths were driven by emissary Lucius Aemilius Paullus. History scholars say that toward the end of this fight, 45,500 Roman infantries alongside 2700 warriors got killed, with extra men imprisoned.

This outcome sent chills of questions to Rome and its associates, and helped the certainty of Carthaginians and other opponent tribes. Polybius even noted “The amount more genuine was the annihilation of Cannae, than those which went before it can be seen by the conduct of Rome’s associates; before that pivotal day, their faithfulness stayed unshaken, now it started to falter for the basic reason that they surrendered all expectations regarding Roman force.”

Fabian Strategy


To battle off Hannibal’s very effective abilities in the combat zone, the Roman’s used the Fabian strategy – they didn’t participate in open fight with the rival, however dueled with rather little separations of opponent on rehashed events.  Quintus Fabius Maximus was made a commander in chief and also a temporary dictator.

This somewhat cowardly action was obviously not all that favored amongst the Roman warriors who gave Fabius a title of Cunctator which signified “delayer” since he appeared to stay away from fight during a period when Italy was getting all beaten up by its opponents. Nevertheless, this ended up being a masterstroke. Fabius’ constant jab at Hannibal’s power damaged the last’s charge capacities and increased numerous prisoners for the Romans. In any case, soon, Fabius got out of favor in Rome, since his strategies did not prompt a snappy end to the war and he was expelled from his post in the 216 BC election in Rome.

Battle of Lake Trasimene (217 BC)


Following several unsuccessful endeavors, Hannibal used an innovative approach and marched his men around his enemy’s flank to make them run away from Rome. At that point by the shore of lake Trasimene, he was all readied to fight with his enemy. It was a finished achievement – the fight which went ahead to be known as the fight of Lake Trasimene witnessed a successful Carthaginian attack upon Roman emissary Flaminius and his armed force of around 25,000 men between Lake Trasimene and the hills at Cortona.

Hannibal managed a gigantic pass up wrecking the vast majority of the Roman armed force at the expense of negligible misfortune to his side. Roman general Flaminius got killed in this action. Around 6,000 infantries, who could escape from the combat zone were gotten by the Numidians and afterward were compelled to lay their arms and surrender. This thrashing had an immense mental impact on the Romans – for it sent swells of frenzy in Rome, and they began having questions on the future of their city.

Battle of Trebia (218 BC)

battle-of-trebia -punic -war

Led by Roman military under Sempronius Longus and Hannibal, this battle of Trebia was a noteworthy fight between the Carthaginians based in Italy in 218 BC. The Carthaginians cleverly caught a supply station that served as a major reason for the Romans to start a fight at Trebia. They had tofight after a tiring travel, plus they were all hungry – so the outcome was: the majority of them were not able to fight to their utmost extent.

With 4000 cavalries and 40,000 infantries, Sempronius Longus began the attack at Trebia. On the other side, Hannibal had a blend of Celtic,African and Spanish infantry. He also had 10,000 cavalries with huge war elephants. Hannibal’s troop-attacked the greater part of the Romans from the front, back and sides. In the end, the Romans had to face a huge loss with only 20,000 men left out of total 40,000.

Hannibal’s crossing of the Alps


Hannibal’s crossing of the Alpsis beyond question one of the greatest incidentsin the second Punic war.This is the incident when Hannibal crossed the Alps to find the Romans guarding off. Actually, Hannibal’s course while crossing the Alps was topic of discussion among the students of history with a significant number of them giving their own records on the subject. Notwithstanding, the walk of Hannibal and his armed force is a huge topic of legends right up ’til the present time.

Hannibal knew a lot about the then state of Rome. He had his Gallic spies all over the Rome. He later settled on the most fortunate time to work out a surprise fight and began his armed force’s walk over the Alps, which used to be weakly habituated around then. From the attack of Sanctum to the walk through the Pyrenees and Rhone and afterward the outrageous climb and drop on the alps – Hannibal’s intersection of Alps was one of his significant accomplishments in the second Punic war, and also the most commended accomplishment of any military power in the ancient times.

See Also,

10 Facts about Hannibal Barca that you didn’t know


Gallic uprisings


During a period when Hannibal was walking a longtriptogether with his infantry, war elephants and cavalry, the Romans confronted a solid uprise amongst the Gallic tribes – further deteriorating the state for them. The Gallic populace predominantly comprised of the Insubres and Boii. These two had already settled strategic relationships with the Carthaginians. Despite the fact that these tribes scorned the Romans, they were never ready to do much about it as a result of their constrained force.

However, when the Carthaginians began their crusade against Rome, the Gallic tribes willingly hit a union with them to battle the Romans in the front. They began by inhabiting the Roman states of Cremona and Placentia. Furthermore, the whole north of Italy went under insurgency, with both Gallic and Ligurian troops reinforcing Hannibal’s armed force back by an extra 40,000 men.

10 Extensive use of Intelligence


The use of knowledge and intelligence had a crucial role in determining the wars that took place time and again. With an unexpected bolster he got from his Gallic partners, Hannibal was constantly sustained with vital information regarding what was going on in Rome at those times. Indeed, he had his spies all over Rome; what’s more, they even broke into the senate of ancient Rome. Mastering an intelligence service, Hannibal made some remarkable triumphs thanks to his clever mind.

Scipio Africanus, the popular Roman general on the other hand,tried to reinforce the Roman insight as much as he could. His real triumphs in the war were altogether subject to knowledge and intelligence. At the point when the spies were trapped, they would get rebuffed rather cruelly. The same happened to a Carthaginian spy in Rome, who should have been a Roman subject. He got his hands slaughtered as a penalty.




In almost any civilization, the military is often a subdued institution, and because of that the military leaders from the ancient world continue to remain in higher regards despite a long period of time. Ancient world has witnessed lots of men that have attained great successes from their military expertise and practices. However, merely a small number of military geniuses could actually be regarded as the greatest military leaders in the history. This article is a compilation of great military commanders whose tactical charm molded just how the history unfolded. These leaders of the history are the honorable ones, despised ones, and the brave ones who just weren’t scared of fighting against all odds.

Here are 10 of the greatest military leaders from the ancient world.

1 Alexander the Great (356-323 BC)


Alexander the Great was the military master and the king of Macedon. There’s no doubt he is one of the venerated military leaders in history. Alexander became the king after his father’s assassination and was handed down with all the power in his hands.He then carried on to spread the kingdom, which was his father’s mission. With a purpose of growing his territory, Alexander used 50,000 armies and marched for 12 years.From Danube River to the upper-regions of the Nile and Adriatic Sea to the Indus River in India, Alexander expanded his kingdom like no one else in the history of mankind.

2 Julius Caesar (100-44 BC)


Julius Caesar wasn’t just a fantastic military general – he was also a politician, a builder and a lawgiver. Probably one of the most renowned commanders in the ancient history, Julius Caesar has made and impact on a wide range of people from ancient world – till today. Caesar is the very first Roman emperor who took a military expedition to the Britain. He inhibited Gaul which today comprises of Belgium, Switzerland, France and northern Italy. One fun fact about is name is that the word “emperor” has its roots in his name in various languages. For example – “czar” in Russian and “kaiser” in German.

3 Sun Tzu (ca. 5th century BC)


The Chinese military general, war strategist, and the author of “The art of war”, Sun Tzu changed eminently the way war was fought in the ancient time. Several of the nations, military commanders and intellectuals followed his book “The art of war.” For the last 2,000 years, the book has continued to be a very powerful military piece of writing in Asia. From the 20th century, The Art of War began to influence in America and Europe in several areas like politics, culture, sport, business, as well as modern warfare.


4 Cyrus the Great (c. 600-529 BC)

Cyrus the Great

Cyrus the Great was the first person in history to unify the whole Iran. Cyrus was the commander of the Persians who conquered the Medes. With a dream to build one of the biggest empires on earth, the first king of the Persian Empire began to grow his territory based on the western part of current day Iran. Having a gain access to the Mediterranean Sea port, Cyrus encroached upon the kingdom of Greek and Lydia conquering it in conjunction with the cast of Antonia. Cyrus was also the first leader to introduce the human rights concept in the history. Any type of slavery was illegal in his empire. In addition, the people from his empire were free to follow any kind of social customs or religions.

5 Hammurabi (ca. 1792-1750 BC)


Hammurabi is widely famous for the Hammurabi’s Code – one of the first written sets of laws. He was actually the first king of Babylon from the Amorite Dynasty. Hammurabi came in power in 1792 BC after his father’s demise. As soon as the Elamites (current day Iraq) encroached upon the central Mesopotamian lands from the east, Hammurabi united with Larsa, and conquered them. Following the conquest, he breached the coalition and infested the towns of Uruk and Lsin, building the connections with Lagash and Nippur.After that he inhibited Lagas, Nippur and Larsa. His great strategy in winning all of the rivals was shutting out the source of water to the town till the authority gave up.

Besides his fantastic battling strategies, Hammurabi was highly preferred among his people. His empire saw the breakthroughs in canals, buildings and law systems which was totally rare in those times. Still today, he is greatly acknowledged by several historians as the ancient-law giver. Hammurabi always made a great effort to enhance the lifestyle of the people during his rule.

See Also,

17 Facts that tells History of  Babylonian civilization 

6 Hannibal (247-183/182 BC)

greatest military leaders

With great many military strategies and tactics, Hannibal was probably one of the greatest military commanders. He was raised by his father and made to loathe Rome from a small age. Hannibal’s amazing military strategies, ingenious risk taking habits, make him different from rest of the military leaders in the history.Hannibal is typically known for his bold endeavor to cross mountain Alps with 9,000 cavalries, 50,000 infantries and 37 elephants which was almost believed to be impossible during those times. Plus, Hannibal has shown his outstanding military tactics in the war between Rome and Carthaginians.Regardless of all his hard works and greatest military approaches, t mission to defeat Rome came to an end when he took his own life by avoiding to fall into the Roman hands.

7 Trajan (c. 53-117 AD)


History has it that Trajan devoted all his life for various military campaigns. Having been largely recognized for the conquering of Dacia (present-day Moldova and Romania), that had bothered Romans all through the decade. Shortly after conquering Dacia, Trajan began a battle against the Parthians and even discomfited them.Trajan conquered Mesopotamia and made a new province out of it.

8 Joshua (ca. 13th century BC)


The primary figure of the was according to the books of the Hebrew Bible. Joshua was an impressive military leader that directed the Israelite people toward the conquering of the Promised Land, according to the books of the Hebrew Bible. Joshua was a primary figure of the Book of Joshua and the substitute of Moses.He is well known for demolishing the town of Jericho that initiated a number of triumphs resulting in the conquest of Canaan.

9 Ramses II (ca. 1303-1213 BC)


The greatest and probably the most recognized Pharaoh from the Ancient Egypt, Ramesses II initiated a number of military campaigns to protect the Egypt’s border. Even though Ramesses was chiefly committed to the growth of his empire by building monuments, temples, and big cities, he was also outrageously famous for his courage and tactic in the battleground. The entire military of 100,000 men restrained the territories kept by the Hittite and Nubian during his reign.He made use of various tactics and strategies during the earliest battle of Kadesh in 1247 BC.Irrespective of the technical mistakes during the war, he is well regarded for his plan, tactic and how large of an army he had in his reign.

10 Themistocles (ca. 528-462 BC)


Themistocles was one of the greatest military leaders from the ancient time. This Athenian general and a statesman had a major role in the definitive defeat of the Persians in the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC. He made the Persians aggress toward the narrow waters at Salamis that held them back from making use of their statistical supremacy. In spite of his glorious victory over Persia, he was subsequently banished from Athens for 10 years, which is why he fled to Persia and died

List of Ancient Roman Arts 

The Ancient Roman art is certainly a wide topic, covering nearly 1,000 years and 3 continents from Europe to Asia and Africa. The earliest Roman art is often traced back to 509 B.C.E., together with the famous beginning of the Roman Republic and its ending on 330 C.E.

Roman artwork likewise has a wide spectral range of media such as painting, marble,silver, mosaic, bronze works, gems and terracotta, to mention a few. The town of Rome was actually a burning pot, additionally, the Romans didn’t come with issues regarding establishing creative influences from some other Mediterranean societies that preceded and encircled them. Because of this it’s quite common to witness Greek, Egyptian and Etruscan influences in Roman art. While I don’t totally mean that all of the Roman arts is a derived function. Romans really are creative and the list below is a proof for it.

Take a look at the 10 amazing Ancient Roman Arts.

1 Column of Trajan

Column of Trajan

 This amazing column of Trajan appears as a milestone in the town of Rome and is also among the finest maintained ancient monuments today from the Ancient Rome. As an incredible work of art in itself, you can find a total of 2662 figures carved into its components, portraying 155 various scenes – allowing it to tell its own story. A variety of scenes depict the historical past of a few exceptionally renowned marches by the Roman armies. The scenes also portray the large battles, particularly from the Dacian wars, agreements, sacrifices, Trajan’s words and several other contemporary political events. Trajan himself is a distinguished figure found in the scriptural narrative. He has carried out a range of militaristic activities While in the scenes from the wars in Dacia. Provided its historical importance and popularity, the ancient Column of Trajan continues to draw in historians and artists even today.

2 Roman Mosaics

Roman Mosaics

No one could ever beat the ancient Romans in incorporating fantastic pieces of arts in the daily life. Such were their instincts. As such forms of art portrayed day to day life moments in ancient Rome, the Roman mosaics could be seen actually exhibiting the artistic flair that the Romans possessed.The Mosaics were definitely beautiful still sophisticated paintings or possibly designs that the Romans created with tiny chunks of ceramic tiles. Such stunning illustrations of artistry were designed to mask counter surfaces, or wall space and occasionally overall floors. Not only did these mosaics offered a spectacular view, but also served to maintain the temperature of the house. Plus, they were way simpler to keep clean. The Mosaics differed with regards to the shape and size of each and every specific stone or ceramic tile.The Romans created variations of mosaics which were kept together in a distinctive layout that it would exhibit the day to day  aesthetics of ancient Rome.

3  The spear bearer (Doryphoros)

the spear bearer Doryphoros

The next Roman marble version of the spear bearer (the Doryphoros) is a phenomenal piece of art in the entire history of ancient artworks – despite the fact this work of genius is much more similar to the ancient Greek culture and art.This incredible Greek carving portraying a vertical athlete holding a spear on his left hand with his tip stabilized over his arm is actually the foundation gem of art – the Doryphoros of Polykleitos.Speaking of the initial Roman marble copies, they go back to 120-50 BCE in Pompeii. The Romans introduced their Doryphoros making use of a less costly marble rather than creating it with bronze like in the ancient Greece.This resulted in a common phenomenon in the ancient Romans where it turned into a frequent picture to catch sight of a number of such sculptures in backyards and dwellings of affluent ones.Even though absolutely nothing from the original spear bearer exists at the present day, its popularization in the Romans and their Emperors ended as a heritage.

4 Column of Marcus Aurelius

ancient roman art

The column of Marcus Aurelius was in fact constructed honoring the prosperous militaristic campaigns that Emperor Aurelius started up against the Sarmatian tribes and Germans. Patterned around its much more favored forerunner referred to as the column of Trajan, it gets much lengthier whenever you take a look at its 7 meters extended below the ground base. The monument stood at a present height of 39 meters.This apparently vertical Doric column is protected in respite statues designed into 21 spirals – every single spiral setting out specific campaigns of Marcus Aurelius against the Sarmatian and Germanic tribes in the middle of 175 and 172 BCE. A good number of narratives portray the situations direct from a couple of key battles, however indeed there are likewise a few exciting outbreaks where Marcus is pictured as approaching his military or where the design achievements of the Romans are showcased. The carved images are usually more meaningful and filled with profound metaphors as opposed to the ones on Trajan’s column, but yet Trajan’s column also offers more remarkably enhanced reliefs and a lot better quality.

5 Dionysus frieze, Villa of Mysteries

Villa of Mysteries


The Villa of Mysteries was forced to deal with the outlook of being flipped into wrecks as Mount Vesuvius blew in 79 AD. Then again thankfully, it just endured small damages and the majority of its wall structure in addition to their frescoes and sculptures made it through the possible destruction. What exactly made this villa leap out was actually a room inside that was furnished with beautifully enchanting displays. This particular room positioned on the front right of the villa currently is recognized as ‘The Initiation Chamber’. The term ‘mysteries’ represents the founding traditions that happened to be the rituals helping people attain adulthood. Some other versions of interpretations point that the frescoes along the wall structure in the room illustrate a little lady in a formal wedding ceremony, applying the rituals to attain womanhood. Instead of celebrating the accomplishments one generates in an entire lifetime as the rituals of initiation, the artistic frescoes in this room symbolize the ethical advancement of individuals in different phases of life.

6  Ixion Room, House of Vetti

House of Vetti ancient roman arts

Back during Roman era, House of Vetti once was probably one of the most well-known and luxurious home owners in Pompeii. The dazzling interiors of this particular dweller were maintained by the outbreak of Mount Vesuvius around 79 AD. History fans and enthusiasts can call yourselves lucky for this. It carries a huge number of incredible designs and eye appealing wall structure frescoes of the ancient time. Exhibiting a creative display whose base lies in the ancient Greek myths, the greatest display of all is set in the Ixion room.With their each and every narration and story to share with, just about all the wall space in the House of Vetti are generally decorated with gorgeous mosaics. However, Ixion room is most widely known because of its portrayal of the agony of Ixion.He was actually fooled and penalized by Zeus as he aimed to win the love of Hera.The painting shows the setting where Hermes is dismissing the prison term on Ixion as Hephaestus is changing the wheel placed on Ixion and Hera is lying on the throne hearing a lady pleaded for Ixion.It is basically for this innovative recital of the renowned mythological event that helps make the fresco attract the attention from the ancient Roman world.

7 Arch of Constantine

Arch of Constantine

The Roman emperors usually glorified great accomplishments and triumphs of their time period. Needless to say, they possessed this thing for building massive triumphal monuments. So as soon as the last great Roman Emperor Constantine trooped back into Rome following a productive campaign against Maxentius during the war of Milvian bridge, he thought he would have a massive arch established which could help remind the Roman folks of his major success over a baronial military unit. It’s additionally the ultimate ideal monument of majestic Rome. Yes, and as destiny would have it, the arch of Constantine is the biggest remaining triumphal arch. This unique enormous monument was made up of 3 distinct arches – one bigger one at the middle and two smaller ones on each side.The monument stands at a magnificent height of 21 meters and even much greater width. The bottom area of the arch portrays the battle of Milvian bridge.

8 Arch of Septimius Severus

Arch of Septimius Severus

Right at the end of the 2nd century BCE, the renowned arch of Septimius Severus was constructed to signify and represent the Roman triumphs over the Parthians. Septimius built this triumphal posture in order to show his militaristic conquests that had a significant part in additional expansion of the Roman empire into the regions of current day Iran andIraq. This monumental structure was created of Proconessian white marble that was brought from the ocean of Marmara. The Arch stands about 21 meters high with a breadth of more than 23 meters.This massive structure is stuffed with many exceptional carvings portraying scenes out from the military campaigns against the Parthians. And maybe the greatest visible feature in the arch is the engravings on a shoebox initially penned with a gilded bronze dedicating the Septimius Severus to himself and his two sons Geta and Caracalla. The arch of Septimius Severus is an enduring structure even today that the Ancient Rome is extremely proud about, which is why it’s one of the very most breathtaking pieces of Roman art.

9 Altar of Augustan Peace (Ara Pacis Augustae)

Altar of Augustan Peace


It was in the 13th century BCE, the altar of Augustan Peace was constructed by the Roman senate to pay tribute to Emperor Augustus, who was coming back from an effective campaign in Gaul and Spain. The Altar was perhaps one of the best items of Roman sculpture and art and a major step in the development of art in Roman age. Enclosed by large wall structures, Ara Pacis has got 2 gates – one at the east and another at the west. The majority of the inner and outer walls are designed into gorgeous sculptures and attractive friezes. However, it is the design on the outside of precinct wall space that sticks out, aside from depictions for this emanation of majestic house members. The walls are designed with carvings that focus on themes of peace and Roman social traditions. The altar became a symbol of Pax (peace), as the Romans experienced a time of exceptional peace throughout the rule of Augustus.

10 Fresco wall from house of Livia

Fresco wall from house of Livia

Just about two thousand years old Roman art, House of Livia holds an array of fabulous floor mosaics and wall frescoes in the Ancient Rome. The good thing is for all you twenty-first century art lovers, the house of Livia to this day maintains its spellbinding elegance. The house is considered to be the occupant of Augustus’ wife Livia, a lady who had been so strong and authoritative in her lifetime that even the Roman senate was forced to present her with the label of Mater Patriae (Mother of the Fatherland). With some of the realistic and eye-catching interior walls, the house of Livia had wall arts together with major impact on visual images of the picturesque appeal of natural elements. Flowers, alluring birds, typical plants and trees are brushed with much great focus on the details that even specialists were struggling to recognize.Although it has pretty much exceeded about 2 millennia, yet it reflects such pure aesthetics that it quite appears like an illusion today.




17 Facts that tells History of  Babylonian civilization .

Babylonia is a very old Akkadian-speaking Afroasiatic state and an ethnical region located in central-southern region of Mesopotamia, which is 59 miles southwest of Baghdad in the present day Iraq. Following the downfall of the Akkadian dynasty, two more empires rose to power – Assyrians in the north and the Babylonians in the south. The Babylonian civilization was the first civilization ever to build an empire that comprised all of Mesopotamia.

The town of Babylon was a major city in Mesopotamia for centuries. As soon as the Akkadian Empire fell down, Amorites took over and colonized the whole city. It was in 1792 BC, the metropolis jumped right into the power as King Hammurabi snapped the position. He then, was a strong and competent leader who planned to control much more than the town of Babylon. Shortly after being the King, Hammurabi started to triumph over other towns in the region. In just a couple of years, Hammurabi had seized all of Mesopotamia along with the majority of the Assyrian territories in the north.

Under the empire of Hammurabi, the town of Babylon took over as the strongest and most successful city in the arena. Situated on the river banks of the Euphrates, the hub was actually a leading trade center merging unique ideas and devices. Babylon further became the greatest city on earth at that time with up to 200,000 people residing there altogether.

At the middle of the town was a major temple called Ziggurat. This particular place of worship appeared something similar to a pyramid that had a plain top. Most of the archeologists believe that it was around 300 feet tall. There was also an entire path following the gates of the middle of the town. This urban area was likewise well-known for its towers, gardens, palaces and its amazing Babylonian architecture. The sight clearly was worth seeing. Not only the town was a cultural hub of the whole empire, but also the heart of science, art, music, astronomy, literature and mathematics.

Here are 17 interesting facts about Ancient Babylonia you might not have known yet.


1 Babylon was one of the splendid cities in the ancient world.Ancient Babylonia


2 The literal meaning of the word Babylon is ‘Confusion.’ It was the last name given to Babel, which was the capital city of Babylonia in Mesopotamia.


3 The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were amongst the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Those spectacular gardens were actually created for a homesick king’s wife. She yearned for the garden plants of her motherland. Unfortunately, the gardens were all ruined right after the earthquakes in 2nd century BC.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon


4 The widely known Hammurabi code comprises of 282 written laws and regulations about agriculture, marriage, industries, governance, land, properties and others.


5 The Code was printed on a large stone tablet at the middle of the town. It was open for everyone to look at.This significant code of value was actually the people’s guidebook for their day to day actions and undertakings.



6 The major motto of Hammurabi’s Code was “a tooth for a tooth and an eye for an eye.”


7 The Babylonian military used to comprise of well-trained soldiers.

Babylonian military

8 The administrative unit of seniors from the upper-class people served as judges also known as “amelu”. The decisions they made were mostly influenced by the Code of Hammurabi.


9 The Babylonians were very good in record-keeping. They used to record all the verdicts from the judges for the future references.


10 Babylonia was a very liberal place for the women. Unlike other societies, the Babylonian culture allowed their women to be priests. What’s more, women were even free to sell wine and set up their very own business.


11 A Babylonian woman could ask her husband to support for her life. She could also ask for a dowry from her father. In addition, she even had the rights to the properties of her husband after his death.


12 The Babylonian history shows that they worshipped Sumerian gods and goddesses. Marduk was their greatest god.

Sumerian gods and goddesses


13 The regular attacks from Kassites followed closely by the Hittites resulted in the decline of Ancient Babylonia.


14 The Babylonians were the first people to bring in the concept of sales contract. They also introduced the idea of sealing in a contract.

Babylonian civilization


15 The Babylonian art was one of its kind in the ancient times. The ancient Babylonians introduced jewelries into the world. They made use of precious gems and metals to design the jewelries. Needless to say, they were extra-ordinary jewelry makers.


16 The epics like EnunaElish and Gilgamesh were the important pieces of Babylonian writing that made their literature much better.


17 As one of the greatest Babylonian inventions, the Code of Hammurabi even today is used as the foundation of several laws and regulations across the world.

See Also,

10 Discoveries and Inventions of Mesopotamia Civilizations


10 Facts about Hannibal Barca that you didn’t know

Hannibal Barca, also known as Carthaginian general Hannibal was born in North Africa in 247 B.C. Barca, a Punic military general from Carthage, is usually viewed as one of the best military commanders in the history of the world. Born into a Carthaginian military family, he had to vow menacing vibe toward Rome. Prior to the arrival of Hannibal, Carthaginian and Rome were rivals to each other. The initial dispute between the Carthage and the Romans led to the very first Punic war inside Sicily. The war between Rome and Carthaginian went on for more than 20 years, and then Carthaginian gave up on Rome. The war was primarily for the trade domination over Mediterranean.

As the time passed by, Hannibal was handed an authority of a military and straight away made to negotiate Carthaginian influence over Iberia; all at the age of 26. He wedded with an Iberian princess – Imilce; defeated and also partnered with many Iberian tribes. He created his new home base – the seaport of Qart Hadasht which today is known as Cartagena. In 219 B.C., Hannibal invaded the city of Saguntum that incited Rome’s anger resulting in the Second Punic War.

Now, let’s take a brief look at Hannibal Barca’s life journey and scan through the 10 most unknown things about this incredible man in the history.

1 Hannibal’s Appearance

Hannibal’s Appearance

Hannibal had a captivating personality. The man was always in perfect shape. The Clean-shaven, tall and athletic commander was also a dauntless rider and an exceptional swordsman. On top of all that, he was quite attractive too. His appearance revealed his Phoenician bloodlines with a little snared nose, dark eyes and curly hair. Unfortunately, he lost one of his eyes in his combat against Rome.

2 A war genius

No labor could ever wear out his body or make up for his spirit. Hannibal was able to withstand cold and heat both, and his awesome intake of drink and food was influenced by natural need – not by entertainment and pleasures. His times during wake and sleep just weren’t driven by day or night. As soon as a task was accomplished, he tended to give other time to the rest, however he didn’t engage in the pleasures on comfortable surroundings. Most people usually consider him to be laying on the soil tied up merely in a military dress among the outposts of his troopers.

3 Hannibal the conqueror

Hannibal the conqueror

Hannibal’s journey of being a conqueror started off as a commander-in-chief of the Carthaginian army in 221 BC. Just at the age of 26, he was handed with such a power following the murder of Hasdrudal. Hannibal was clearly a perfect commander and a conqueror with an incredible militaristic strategy. His courageous endeavor to combat against the Rome with such a fantastic plan of action has made him one of the best military commanders in the historical past of the ancient times.

4 Hannibal’s Rome Travel

Hannibal walked through the Pyrenees in the direction of Gaul taking with him at least 100,000 soldiers and almost 40 war elephants at the end of 218 B.C. The Roman commander Publius Cornelius Scipio tried to encounter him right at the Rhone River; however Hannibal as of then had surpassed it and was already on his path to the Alps which is in the Southern France today. Over 5 months faraway from Cartagena, on the fifteenth day of the crossing over, Hannibal eventually exited the mountains with only 37 elephants, 6,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantries. Hannibal’s Alps voyage was, nonetheless, a phenomenal militaristic accomplishment. Hannibal was living on top of a terrific pressure in the Mediterranean, when the Roman Republic set up its dominance over some other high forces like Carthage and the Hellenistic kingdoms of Syracuse, the Seleucid Empire and Macedon.

5 Alps Crossing and Attacks

Hannibal barca conqueror

Along the voyage to Rome, Hannibal’s troop had to face several assaults from different local tribes. Not to mention a severe weather condition made the situation much worse. Hannibal’s troop met with guerrilla attacks from native tribes who threw hefty rocks all over their way. Toward the end of the Alps, there seemed to be a pit obstructing their path. So, Hannibal made use of firewood and wine to get rid of the blockade by burning the layer at the base of the pit, which smashed the pit into pieces and freed their route. Just after traversing the Alps, Hannibal arrived at the place that was colonized by the Gauls. As Guals despised Romans, they merrily welcomed Hannibal.

6 The Second Punic War

For the three consecutive years, Hannibal’s military fought Scipio’s troops to get the hold of Italian land. In the meantime, Rome sent armies to North Africa and Iberia raiding Carthaginian villages and towns. After that, Hannibal left his Roman campaign behind and took a trip back to fight for his own country once again in 203 B.C. His major accomplishment in the second Punic is so noteworthy that it has been recalled through the entire history.

7 Hannibal Bacra Elephants Trumpet

Hannibal Bacra Elephants

The Romans made use of trumpets to frighten the elephants of the Carthaginian military during the War of Zama. The frightened elephants stampeded and wiped out a majority of the Carthaginian soldiers. In 202 B.C., the soldiers of Hannibal and Scipio came right across the War of Zama, where in contrast to the earlier encounters, the Romans possessed more power. They made use of trumpets to flee the rest of the very few elephants that circled straight back and trampled the Carthaginian soldiers. Hannibal’s armed force was dispersed and a lot of his troopers had been slowly sought and slaughtered by the Romans.

8 A Statesman

The Carthaginians and Romans treaty on peace turned out to be very challenging to the Carthaginians, badly cutting their soldiers out and removing huge reparations. Immediately after becoming a chief magistrate, Hannibal put in all his efforts in politics to a great extent in Carthage for the next ten years. Due to Hannibal’s engagement in national politics, the Romans became worried, particularly as he was rising in popularity. So they asked for the retirement of Hannibal in 195 BC. To make certain that wouldn’t happen; Hannibal set up elections for the panel of adjudicators in military and modified provisions of office from everyday life for two years in his time.

9 Turkey Stay

A few years later, Hannibal went to live in Ephesus, Turkey where he turned into a militaristic consultant to the Turkish. In 190 BC, Hannibal was made in charge of Greek soldiers – Seleucid, and sent to battle up against a Roman state – Pergamon. Sadly, Hannibal’s military was beaten down. Thus, soon after the defeat, Hannibal ran away to Bithynia. The Romans had ordered that Hannibal be returned to them but the great warrior was determined not to ever fall into rival’s hands, so he fled.

10 Hannibal’s Death

Later after that incident, one more time Hannibal resisted to get seized at Libyssa in 183 BC. Consuming a vial of poison, Hannibal then took his own life at Libyssa, close to the Bosporus Straits the same year.

10 famous Red-figure pottery of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek vases have been found in the 2nd century B.C. right until the end of the 1st century B.C., when Greek pottery used to be traded from one region of Greece to the other. At first, various local designs in vase painting prospered, however toward the middle of the 6th century B.C. the glass vases from Attica had maxed out in number and quality compared to their closest competitor Corinth, with whom they were fighting for the profitable markets overseas. Such an Attic domination never went past but rather survived a century and a half and made it through a lot of political upheavals and wars, prior to the devastating ending of the Peloponnesian war in 404 B.C. where Athens got robbed of all its lucrative markets in the West.

When Attic pottery slowly started declining, no vases were painted from middle of the 4th century, yet, there are some clear evidences of vase paintings in other places of Greece. The oldest Greek vases were coated mainly with basic ornamental styles and barely diverged from pottery made in other places of the world. Without a doubt, a few endeavors at sharing a story as of now are present in Mycenaean vases from the late Bronze Age, however natural decoration remains to be the predominating element, and vases that carry human issues are a specific minority.

Unlike Greek vase painting, the main appeal of Mycenaean vases design had been the ebullient concepts extracted from sea life, nonetheless toward the very end of the 2nd century BC, an entire artistic reversion occurred. This subsequent design was identified as “geometric” and, as the name suggests, the rigid, organized designs are drawn from whether a compass or a ruler.

With serious and determined studies of Greek painted ceramics from in the 18th century, what we can say is the examination of Greek vase paintings definitely holds a critical status when it comes to classical archaeology.

The idea of Greek vase painting in itself is viewed somewhat in a different way by scholars; many, for instance, see painted vases from the Greek Bronze Age, while some don’t. The majority of scholars and historians include Hellenistic, Geometric and Protogeometric as painted vases, however the crucial foundation, that the majority of the historians are focused, is the figured vases from Classical periods (700-323 B.C.E.).

The principle emphasis of the research into Greek vase painting has evolved throughout the generations, just as the amount of importance on several factors like interpretation of subject, typology, chronology, collecting, attribution and cataloguing. Even though the study persists at present in all of these aspects, a lot more focus has been positioned on trade, context, shapes and the practical elements of production.

Now, let’s take a closer look at the evergreen 10 Ancient Greek Vase Paintings.

1 Achilles and Pentheselia Vase


Achilles, the Greek hero of the Trojan War and the greatest warrior of Homer’s Iliad can be seen in the painting holding Pentheselia, an Amazonian queen who was the sister of Antiope, Hippolyta and Melanippe, and the daughter of Ares and Otrera.

2 Achilles and Pentheselia on the Plain of Troy, with Athena, Aphrodite and Eros


This Greek Vase painting is again of Achilles and Pentheselia, but this time its pictured in the plain lands of Troy with the Greek gods and goddesses –namely Athena, Aphrodite and Eros.

3 Aeneas


The painting has the trojan hero Aeneas who is the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Venus (Aphrodite).

 4 Amymone


Amymone is depicted as a “blameless” one in the painting. She was a daughter of Danaus.

 5 Ariadnen


Ariadne was acyually a vegetation goddess in Crete linked to some other Cretan goddesses particularly Britomartis. She was discovered by Dionysus, asleep on the Island of Naxos.

6 Hector


Hector, in Greek mythology, was the most sifnificant fighter for Troy in the Trojan War. In fact, he was the the founder of Troy and a descendant of Tros and Dardanus.

 7 Hippolyta


Hippolyta, in Greek mythology,was the Amazonian queen who had a magical girdle she was given by her father Ares, the god of war.

See Also,
Top 20 Amazing Pieces of Ancient Greek Art

 8 Maenad


Maenads were the female followers of Dionysus and the most significant followers of the Thiasus, the god’s worshippers. In this particular vase painting, one of the Maenads is depicted carrying a Skyphos.

 9 Peleus and Thetis


The story of Peleus and Thetis is still one of the most popular ones from the ancient Greek mythology. Peleus was a brave hero while Thetis was a sea nymph or known as the goddess of water.

10 Perseus and Andromeda Greek Vase Paintings


The story of Perseus and Andromeda consists of profound wisdom on the connections of male and female energies. Perseus was one of the most significant heroes of Greek mythology while the beautiful Andromeda was the daughter of the Ethiopian king Cepheus and queen Cassiopeia.

10 Amazing Ancient Roman art paintings

Ancient Roman Paintings have always been one of the finest ways of picturing and exhibiting various human emotions. The fundamental breakthrough of the ancient paintings in royal palaces, caves, temples propose that a variety of art forms were popular for over thousands of years ago. Paintings and particularly Frescoes used to be popular approaches to interior design inside the ancient Roman buildings. Especially in the houses of the rich people. Of the paintings that survived the Roman classical world, the majority are frescoes based in the regions of Campania near Naples. Herculaneum, Pompeii and others were some of the cities in Campania that had paintings, buildings and sculptures preserved from the ancient times.

Now let’s take a look at 10 famous Ancient Roman Paintings.

1 Women, Pompeii


This painting of Omphale, the Queen of Lydia, is one very sensitive and fragile painting from the house of the Prince of Montenegro. In the painting, one can see that the queen is surrounded by two young women servants wearingsmoothrobes and has a fan in her right-hand. This particular fresco springs back to the time of Emperor Augustus, who’s thought to have passed away in the vicinity of Naples.

2 Theatrical masks


Red was probably one of the primary colors of the interior walls in the houses of the Roman cities. Much of the earliest luster has faded away which is why several of the paintings were taken off the city by the archaeologists in a due course of time. A number of pieces with red colorings inside the convention are muted and at times even distorted with mauve.However, this well-maintained painting has somehow held on to all its originality of color that it possessed from the time when an unidentified artist sketched it in the 1st Century AD.

3 Villa dellaFarnesina, Rome wall



The painting offers a clear concept of beautification inside an affluent residence throughout the era of Emperor Augustus (63BC-AD14). The majority of the mythical settings were the replicas of lost genuine ones from the ancient Greece, which were originally brushed entirely on to the wall space in painted frames. The wallpapers were generally painted in Pompeian red or simply in black. The colors were made up of minerals and fine-grained gemstones.

4 Theseus, Pompeii


Discovered in the mid-18th century deep within the Basilica, a public building in ancient Herculaneum, close to Pompeii – this incredible fresco was among the initial historical paintings that was restored in an almost perfect shape. The painting is usually matched against the art pieces from the Renaissance master Raphael.In the painting, a group of children is congratulating Theseus for Minotaur, a mythic beast.

5 Herm, Pompeii


A herm was actually a border marker and a symbol if good fortune. It was typically exceeded by a portrayal of the one who owned the property.This very fresco painting is derived from the wrecks of a Pompeii villa. An entire garden space remains preserved in this picture. The proficient artist has diligently portrayed plants, birds and flowers in the painting. Sadly, the head of the herm was decorated from all natural colors that has been lost in almost all of the sculptures and statues that happened to survive.

6 Nightingale, Pompeii


The National Museum of Rome has launched an extraordinary exhibition of 2,000-year-old paintings called Pompeian Red. Over 100 paintings – most notably Nightingale (on the left) – highlight the architecture, fashions, home decorations, landscape, ancient beliefs, dining tables and people that resided in the ancient town of Rome and in Pompeii prior to its break down by a volcanic eruption in 79 AD.

7 Arimaspe and Gryphon, Pompeii


This particular painting has originated from the Villa of puzzles in Pompeii although it was later reconstructed from pieces. The painting presents a conflict between gryphon, a fabled monster with the body of a lion and the head and wings an eagle; and a hooded figure, attempting to defend himself from the claws of gryphon with the help of his leather shield.The painting dates back to 120 years prior to the eruption in Pompeii.

8 Io and Argus, Pompeii


According to Greek mythology, Io, was a nymph, who got transformed into a white heifer as Zeus fell deeply in love with her. You can notice white horns just starting to grow from Io’s head. A large number of painting variants of the exactly same tale were brushed on the interior walls of Pompeian houses. It is,however, hard to identify them because artist seldom signed their paintings.One more reason why it’s hard to find the ancient Roman Pompeian paintings is because they were very fragile. They were hardly ever taken anywhere for the exhibition purposes.

9 Wader bird, Pompeii


This fresco was painted in the garden near the River Sarno that directly flowed into the sea. These types of waders were a common sight for the families that stayed in the House of the Golden Bracelet since, there were hefty gold bracelets dug up along with a small stash of silver and gold coins.Up until this original Pompeian garden area was learned about half a century ago, the only real similar room from that ancient time to have lasted was so-called House of Livia, close to Rome.

10 Ancient Roman Paintings of Eros and Psyche, Pompeii



One of the much-loved subject matters for the painters in the ancient Rome was the legendary romance between Eros and the gorgeous Psyche. Speaking of this particular fresco, it was taken right out of the walls of TerenzioNeo’s house in Pompeii and afterwards installed in a wooden structure.When the Neapolitan royal family got lots of walls demolished, the significant frescoes were carried away to their personal paintings collections.Yet, fortunately when archaeology grew to be more scientific in the later days, conservation eventually came into practice.

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Famous List of Ancient Greek Philosophers

Ancient Greece has had a tremendous influence on society, culture and philosophy of the Western world. Not just in the west, Greeks certainly have managed to make immense contributions to the entire world in a number of ways, more often than not, it has been most apparent in literature and philosophy. A lot of the earliest works of literature in the western world are highly influenced by the Greeks. Western thinkers, generation after generation, have acted upon what Greeks did in the past.

Everyone firmly believed in myths and miracles during the ancient days. The world around us wasn’t as it is now, in terms of science, technology and human development. Nevertheless, the ancient Greek philosophers didn’t believe so. They rather introduced a fresh new concept to the contemporary philosophical perspective. They chipped out all the traditional mythological conclusions that were prevalent at those times. Evidence and reasoning largely became the cornerstones of their interpretations. With the rise of a great many philosophers in Greece, conceptual ideas and groundbreaking works in philosophy started to show up. From human beings to cosmos and what not! Greek philosophers haven’t left out a single area of interest in philosophy.

Here I present to you the 20 most notable name of Greek Philosophers of all time.

1 Socrates (469 BCE – 399 BCE)


Socrates set out a completely new attitude to achieve pragmatic outcomes through implementation of philosophy in our day to day lives – a thing that had been primarily lacking in pre-Socratic approach. He publicly redirected from the unrelenting physical conjectures. The philosophers prior to him were busy assimilating and interpreting to ascertain a moral system founded on human intellect and reasoning.

But Socrates, rather than bringing up concepts strictly founded on his personal interpretations, he’d question everyone often regarding their values and beliefs. He grew into an important figure gathering countless supporters, while on the contrary he likewise made several enemies. In the course of time, his philosophy and practical way of thinking in philosophy resulted in his execution

2 Plato (427 BCE – 347 BCE)


Although Plato was a remarkable student of Socrates, he was mostly shaped by the philosophical school of thought of his master. Nonetheless, even when Socrates was insistently concerned with interpretation of philosophy established entirely on human reasons, Plato indulged himself in blending the two great concepts – Socratic honorable theology and the metaphysics before him. The principal foundation of Plato’s philosophy lies in ethics, dialects and physics – the fundamental point of agreement being the theory of forms. According to Plato, the greatest of forms was that of the ‘good’, that he accepted as what sets off knowledge and the being itself. While in physics, he agreed with Pythagoreans in a great deal.

3 Democritus (460 BC –370 BC)


There are several names in the ancient Greece that have stood out as instances of individuals who attained breakthroughs and made it easier for us to derive our modern understandings. Democritus is one amongst such persons. The ancient Greek philosopher is regarded by many historians as the father of modern science. Although he is normally seen as one of Greece’s natural philosophers before the Socrates, many still debate that he is more of a scientist rather than a philosopher. There’s already been considerable arguing – especially in Germany throughout the 19th century – if Democritus really is deserving of the credit for atomic theory. This discussion draws on the connection Democritus had with a then philosopher Leucippus, who on the other hand was known for revealing his concepts about atoms with Democritus. Having said that, their concepts came down to a new base, a variation that allowed Democritus to have credit for a theory that became an essential part of the modern scientific tradition.

4 Aristotle (384 BCE – 322 BCE)


Of all the disciples of Plato, Aristotle of Stagira was the most influential one. His understanding of issues was mostly centered on the information discovered from personal experiences one gathers in life, a concept that contrasted with that of his master who favored an attitude that was past the handiness of actual physical sensory faculty. He turned out to be a creative writer and an equally innovative polymath, eventually re-inventing the pre-established ideas in just about all regions of expertise. Aristotle is really an essential figure in the ancient Greece whose impact continued to have a positive change way past the boundaries of ancient Greece also much further in time.

5 Anaximander (610 BCE – 546 BCE)


Anaximander of Miletus was a renowned student of Thales. He is acknowledged to be the first known philosophical writer in Greece – considering the fact that he stood out as the sole known philosopher to own the authorship of the earliest verses of the western philosophy. His contributions weren’t just limited to philosophy, he was also a celebrated figure in geography and biology. He came up with the very first world picture of an open universe, redirecting from former idea of a bolted universe. This led him to be the first inquisitive astronomer in the history of humankind. Farther along he stretched out the philosophical viewpoints of his master – proposing a concept which he regarded as the foundation of everything in this universe. A great deal of his efforts may perhaps continue to be abbreviated, particularly with the rise of more generations of philosophers, yet he is still considered to be one of the greatest creative thinkers in the ancient Greece.

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6 Thales (620 BCE – 546 BCE)


Thales of Miletus is undoubtedly the Father of Ancient Greek Philosophy. A person that looked into the basic fundamentals like the origin of matter, Thales is considered to be the originator of school of natural philosophy. As a good philosopher, Thales hardly ever restricted his study to a confined field amongst accessible knowledge. He was truly indulged in learning about many facets of practical knowledge like mathematics, philosophy, geography science, etc. He is likewise believed to have designed a well-defined criterion to reason why changes happen everywhere. He has also suggested that water is the principle element of the entire world. His philosophical ideas have become a part of huge contributions to the ancient Greek philosophy from where the following generations of several distinguished theorists, meta-physicists, thinkers and philosophers got a chance to grow bigger.

 7 Zeno (490 BCE – 430 BCE)


Zeno of Elea was the very first philosopher in the history of the world to demonstrate the theory of infinity. When the majority of Greek philosophers were using their knowledge and intellect to understand nature as it is, Zeno dedicated all his effort in interpreting various paradoxes and puzzles about plurality and motion. He made an effort to put an in depth depiction to contradicting ideas evident in the physical world that weren’t there for their logic. Amongst a couple of philosophers that defended Parmenides, Zeno was also the one. He propounded numerous paradoxes himself, that grew to be the topics of debate among subsequent generations of Greek philosophers later on.

 Diogenes (412 BC -323 BC)


 Diogenes of Sinope was probably the most celebrated Cynic philosopher who served as a great example of the Cynic sage in the Ancient Greece. He was supposed to be a disciple of Antisthenes. Keeping up with his teacher’s doctrine and focus on ethical motive, Diogenes brought about a certain kind of sense of humor and dynamism in the history of philosophy.Even though he was originally from Sinope, most of his descriptions consisting of his life story take place in Athens. Yet, it is a debatable issue if Diogenes had left out anything on paper.Provided that if he did, the papers he wrote have already been lost. We know in Cynicism, living and writing are the two essential aspects of meaningful practice, however, Diogenes is a lot like Plato and Socrates, who prefers spoken discussions over the written accounts.

 9 Parmenides (510 BCE – 560 BCE) 


Parmenides was actually a renowned follower of Pythagoras. His thoughts and poems usually appeared to take a substantial influence from Xanophanes, who many of the historians think is his pupil.

Parmenides was one of the most significant philosophers prior to the time of Socrates. The Greek philosopher has aimed to decipher the greatest question of all time – is it or is it not? Actually, his endeavor in understanding this philosophical puzzle brought about a somewhat paradoxical assertion instead of a worthwhile answer. Parmenides has said that every little thing ‘that is’ should have always been there, since nothing can be derived from ‘nothing’ by itself. The philosophers that came after him worked on merely to this philosophical notion.

10 Pythagoras(570 BCE – 495 BCE)


One more incredible Greek philosopher, Pythagoras was known much more for his ideas and theories in mathematics compared to philosophy. As a matter of fact, he is most commonly known for a geometric theory named after him. No doubt that he is one of the significant names in Ancient Greek society, yet somehow we all actually know quite less about him. He is attributed with establishing a philosophical school that gained him a lot of supporters. Pythagoras, at this school, aimed to look for a mutual balance between the practical factors of philosophy and real life. Not only has he propounded mathematical and philosophical ideas, but also taught the rules of living. He focused his schooling for people in order to lead a harmonious life.

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 11 Empedocles (490 BCE – 430 BCE)


The creator of four element theory of matter – Empedocles was essentially the most significant philosopher in Greece before Socrates. With his philosophical points of interest and exceptional poems, he was able to make an incredible impact on subsequent poets and philosophers in the Ancient Greece. His four element theory of matter essentially consisted of four major elements – air, water, earth and fire. While many historians consider it to be a rushed effort to neutralize the non-dualism principle of Parmenides, the theory however turned out to be amongst the initial concepts in particle physics. Empedocles plainly disapproved the existence of nothingness or a vacant space, therefore contradicting the philosophy of Parmenides all the way through.

12 Anaxagoras (500 BCE – 428 BCE)


Anaxagoras of Clazomenae was a significant personality in the ancient Greece before the time of Socrates. He was a leading scientist and philosopher who stayed in Athens for around thirty years. His philosophical ideas revolved quite a lot around the nature itself. His concepts stood out like a sore thumb from the traditional beliefs and principles that eventually resulted in severe consequences. Anaxagoras is acknowledged to be the first philosopher ever to begin a different kind of school of thought from Athens which later on would influence the modern society for centuries into the future. He committed a lot of his time in describing nature as it is – deriving universe as an indistinguishable matter. He, in this physical world, thought that everything consists of a piece of every other thing.