10 Mesopotamian Inventions and Discoveries

10 Discoveries and Inventions of Mesopotamia Civilizations

Perhaps, at some point of time or other in your life, you might have thought of becoming a great inventor or maybe a discoverer for that matter – making use of an exceptionally brilliant concept that transforms society for the better and would also allow you to be rich at one fell swoop. If you ever have dreamt so, then hang on, you’re not alone. Histories provide us with a range of possibilities we can explore further.

A brief history of technological innovation is, in several ways, an account of outstanding inventors and discoverers along with their fantastic inventions. The development of new technologies continues to take place from the start of human history.

Starting from the invention of weapons like the knifes and spears made using stones and twigs to assist in the shooting and killing of animals for food – to the things like the original printing-press and the computer system – we have really encountered a lot of advancements in course of time. So far as the inventions and discoveries during the Mesopotamia Civilization are concerned, the majority of the creative ideas that we’ve been taking for granted nowadays had been invented and discovered then and there.

Truth be told, a large number of Mesopotamian inventions and discoveries  turned out to be a lot more effective later on. So with no further ado, let’s jump right into the incredible top-ten list of the Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia Civilization.

1 Mathematics with Sexegesimal

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As soon as the civilizations began to bloom, people started to trade, so they needed a precise method to classify the items they collected. Sumerians had been the very first individuals on earth who progressed with the idea of counting. They additionally created the sexegesimal, also known as base-60. The sexegesimal made it easier to formulate the approaches like 12 months a year and 360-degree circle. They made use of twelve knuckles to remember in one hand and other 5 fingers in another hand. The Babylonians used base-6, where number featured on the left Column showed larger value.

The idea of zero originated from Babylonians. It was then that societies had started comprehending the importance of possessing nothing; however notion of zero wasn’t conceived earlier. Lots of scholars thought that the very idea of zero was invented by Babylonian and accompanied by a variety of civilizations across the world in their own personal ways. Nevertheless, a few people still claim it had been at first invented in India.

 2 Farming and Irrigation

Mesopotamian-Farming-Irrigation

 Farmers previously used to grow barley, wheat, cucumbers and some other variety of foods as well as vegetables. They made use of the stone hoes to plow the land prior to the innovation of the plough. The Euphrates and the Tigris rivers that bordered Mesopotamia made the farming and irrigation much simpler and profitable. Mesopotamian figured out to regulate the movement of water from the river and also applied it for irrigating pastures. Throughout the major thriving seasons, the stream of water was perfectly adjusted. Every single farmer was given a particular quantity of water that was regulated from the canal to a sprinkler system.

3 Invention of  Wheel ( Sumerian)

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The wheel is considered to be one of the most mechanically skillful inventions in history. Almost all the equipments engineered from the start of the Industrial Revolution comprises of a specific, fundamental principle embodied within the mankind’s major innovations. It is not easy to think of any mechanized system that is practical with no wheel or the concept of a symmetrical device rotating on an axis. From small watch gear systems to large vehicles and computer disks, the concept has always been similar.

As a matter of fact, the earliest wheel wasn’t used for transportation. It was rather created to function as porter’s rims. The very first wheel has been believed to appear over 3,500 BC in Mesopotamia. Despite the fact that the wheels were thought to first appear in Ancient Mesopotamia, the most ancient wheel named “Ljubljana Marshes Wheel” dated 5,150 years old was found in 2002 in Ljubljana.

4 Cuneiform

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The Sumerians introduced the very first style of writing known as “Cuneiform” in order to maintain businesses reports. It was largely utilized in the trade where the vendors could track the trade similar to the quantity of food grains, they traded in. Mesopotamians made use of writing to report every day activity, deals and astronomical events.

It had actually been developed for an ordinary pictograph. For example, the pictograph for a horse could be a simple picture of a horse. The writer needed to pull the tip of a stylus pen through the cadaver to build a shape. It became difficult to keep all the characters in mind. So, it normally would take twelve years for anyone to train to write in cuneiform. The characters somehow were lowered to six hundred words near the 2900 B.C.

Towards the end of 2500 BC, Scribes who were skilled individuals appointed to write, had transformed from a sketching picture to stamp using wedge-shaped tip with a reed stylus. For almost three thousand years, Cuneiform script was used by Elamites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Hittites and Akkadians.

5  Map Discovery


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The earliest map was ever encountered in Babylonian in 2300 B.C. The Ancient Cartography which had been included in Babylonian was actually an ordinary outline around the mud-tablets. The clay-based map spotted in Mesopotamia demonstrates the Akkadian area for Mesopotamia. These maps enclosed one small region and tended to be largely employed for a city, a hunting ground, a military campaign, and also a trade route. Despite the fact that the maps were conceived in Mesopotamia, Roman and Greek cartography turned out to be more innovative later on. The very idea of the rounded Earth introduced by Greek Philosophers around 350 BC grew into a notion for geographers to hone with the maps.

6  Mesopotamian Concept of  Time:

Mesopotamia-Concept-Time

From its very traits, civilizations are closely associated with the abstraction and ideas of time. Working with time when it comes to civilization engages a debate of ideas such as the “future” and “fate”, and conversations on the perception of time all in all. Debates are usually conducted with regards to “linear” versus “circular”, “ritual” vs. “social”   or even “real” vs. “supernatural” time.

Mesopotamian civilization essentially offers a good number of viewpoints on the concepts of time. Coming from the philosophy of civilization as a way of getting hold of concealed records, Mesopotamia civilization provides details about activities in past times, present and future and from the viewpoint that is totally open to manipulation and re-interpretations. Mesopotamia established the very idea of time, splitting its units into 60 aspects that ultimately resulted in 60 minutes, 60 seconds and hour. The Babylonians have likewise done substantial calculations in the base-60 system handed down by the Sumerians. At the least, the number 60 was preferred as it is exactly divisible by 6.

7 Discovery of Astrology and Astronomy :

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The very idea of Astrology got its start in the Sumerians period. The day to day events formed a religious significance. It was assumed that each and every bad and good occurred for a particular reason. The astrologers discovered the movement of our planet and informed the rich ones in political and social levels. The astronomical myths such as the idea of a constellation like Leo, Capricorn, Sagittarius, etc. were passed on to Greek by Babylonians and Sumerians which is still in use these days. The constellations were additionally employed in the way of their life. It was greatly helpful to label the seasons for farming pasturelands. Furthermore, they mapped the actual motion of sun, moon, sky and the stars and forecasted the celestial happenings like eclipses.

8  Sailboat

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It’s believed that the earliest sailing vessels were put to use more than 5 thousand years back in Mesopotamia. Even though ancient in terms of the standards today, a square sail served exactly like a modern-day spinnaker to capture the breeze and sail along with it.  As you may possibly visualize, there had been very little controls in this approach.  A square-rigged sail is ideally suited only for a very slow sailing.

Most of these sailors possessed square sails as well, the ones that you will find attuned for mellowness – a lot more rounded and wind-catching while heading out with the wind, or more flat for sailing at an angle to the wind. On top of that, one small beam turned out a clever addition to the sailing ship. The flat working surface operating longwise along the very bottom part of the sailboat prohibited the Viking ships from stripping off on its side in water while cruising at certain position toward the wind. These days, all kinds of sailboat maintain this particular feature for the similar reason.

9  Chariot Invention

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The two-wheeled chariot had always been the most significant innovation of all time. The chariot has given humankind its initial notion of personal transportation, and for over two thousand years it turned out to be an essential technology of war – for almost all of the histories ever recorded. The volume of chariots likewise indicated the power of any armed force.

The chariot evidently came from Mesopotamia in 3000 BC. Typical monuments in Tutub and Ur reflect battles which include hefty vehicles with built-in strong wheels, their body formed with wood and coated with skins. The original chariots had tires that used to rotate upon an attached shaft which was connected from a draft pole up to the yoke involving a set of oxen. With the axle used to be a hooked structure including a base guarded by side-screens and an impressive dashboard. These types of Mesopotamia chariots had been positioned by both charioteer and spearman, even though it is uncertain that battling was carried out based on the vehicle itself.

10 The Mesopotamian’s Plow:

Mesopotamia's-Plow

Human beings have successfully mastered to domesticate animals and employ them for the day to day life in making their jobs much easier. The human race at the outset made use of the OX and created the very first plow known as ARD in Mesopotamia. The original Plow was created of solid wood and was quite heavy. The biggest trouble with the plow was that the dust normally would plaster the plow that had to be eliminated manually. It likewise didn’t function in the compact turfs. The innovation of the plow in Mesopotamia served the huntsmen to remain in the exact same spot and rely upon the farms for the foodstuff.

 

Joanne Shelby

Joanne holds an M.A. in History from Cardiff School of History, Archeology and Religion. She is very much interested in studying and exploring the history of the civilizations across the world.

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