10 second punic war summary

The second Punic war was one of the grievous wars battled in the history of the entire world. Until the definitive minute arrived, the destiny of the war relied upon the balance of a quantity of various fights. It wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that the Carthaginians were the top choices to win this war from the earliest starting point, just to flounder later more definitive phases of the war. The war has always been a topic of discussion amongst the legends and the students of history. To such an extent that as indicated by Livy, it was “the most noteworthy of all the wars that were ever fought – the war which the Carthaginians, under the acquitof Hannibal, kept up with the Roman individuals.

With a long history of fights that went on for over a century, ancient Rome and Carthage fought a total of three wars from 264 BC to 146 BC. These wars were known as Punic wars. The second Punic war was battled from 218 BC to 201 BC and is most associated with the tremendous fights battled between the Carthaginians under Hannibal and the Romans under various officers. Despite the fact that Hannibal’s armed force attacked Italy from the north and resoundingly vanquished the Roman armed force in a few fights, he would never accomplish a definitive objective of bringing about a political break amongst Rome and its partners. There were three fundamental fronts in this war – Italy, where Hannibal vanquished Romans in rehashed fights; Hispania, where Hannibal’s more youthful sibling protected Carthaginian provincial urban areas with energy; and Sicily, where Roman never lost their matchless quality.

As history has it, there have been numerous events during the wars that can’t simply be ignored. Here are 10 major events of the 2nd Punic war.

The aftermath

second punic war aftermath hispania

Before the end of the war, Hispania wasn’t under Carthage, and Rome had gotten a handle on its control over an expansive range that was already inside Carthage. Moreover, Rome forced various assents upon the Carthaginians to impair them from bringing about any further uprisings. They forced a war repayment on them, constrained their naval force to 10 transports (those 10 boats were saved so Carthaginians could ward off conceivable privateer assaults) and denied Carthage from amassing any kind of armed force without the authorization of Rome.

Carthage disregarded these assents and raised an armed force about a large portion of a century later, which prompted the third Punic war. In any case, without a solid initiative and the fantastic size of assets they had in the past wars, Carthage could just put a battle only for three years. The Romans totally demolished it by 146 BC, in this manner stepping forward to a definitive mastery of the ancient Mediterranean world.

Rise and fall of Hannibal

For the individuals who witnessed the whole incidents of second Punic war, the greatest scene was the ascent of Hannibal as a skilled pioneer and a guile strategist in addition to his consequent fall that turned out to be increasingly inescapable as the war neared its conclusive period. He was a minimal known figure amongst the Romans in the starting of the war, and had he not walked over the Alps – one of the most daring and shrewd acts in that war, he might not have possessed the capacity to send blows after blows into the Roman safeguard particularly towards the starting of the war. His men saw him draw the Romans into traps, and beat them unexpectedly.

However, notwithstanding this point of interest, the Carthaginians couldn’t stay away from a definitive annihilation in conclusive fronts. The inquiry stays right up ’til today – did Hannibal imprudently misuse the force of Carthage? Were the smart strategist’s fanciful triumphs additionally the purpose behind the defeat of this once mind blowing realm? Despite the fact that how military virtuoso Hannibal was, he needed to confront the possible fall that prompted a gigantic misfortune for the Carthaginians in the second Punic war.

Battle of Zama (202 BC)

The war was at a conclusive point in 2016 BC. The Romans military under Scipio had taken a great deal of lessons from Hannibal’s strategies and were prepared to fight and beat the Carthaginians in the last confrontation. The greatest help to the Romans was the backing of Massyli tribe, who had initially battled alongside the Carthaginians however agreed with the Romans after the clash of Ilipa. Their backing at the clash of Zama turned out to be most critical to Roman achievement.

Contrary to the most fights from the Second Punic War, the Romans worked out better with their warriors and the Carthaginians had a bigger number of infantries. The Roman armed force constituted a power that was prevalent both as far as arms and aptitudes, when contrasted with the Carthaginians. Hannibal most likely predicted this, and he was likewise persuaded that his men won’t have the capacity to thrust the Roman protection. So he declined to lead his armed force into fight.

Battle of Cannae (216 BC)

The battle of Cannase was one of the greatest triumphs for Hannibal and his partners that took place on the banks of the waterway Aufidus in 216 BC. The Roman strengths were driven by emissary Lucius Aemilius Paullus. History scholars say that toward the end of this fight, 45,500 Roman infantries alongside 2700 warriors got killed, with extra men imprisoned.

This outcome sent chills of questions to Rome and its associates, and helped the certainty of Carthaginians and other opponent tribes. Polybius even noted “The amount more genuine was the annihilation of Cannae, than those which went before it can be seen by the conduct of Rome’s associates; before that pivotal day, their faithfulness stayed unshaken, now it started to falter for the basic reason that they surrendered all expectations regarding Roman force.”

Fabian Strategy

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To battle off Hannibal’s very effective abilities in the combat zone, the Roman’s used the Fabian strategy – they didn’t participate in open fight with the rival, however dueled with rather little separations of opponent on rehashed events.  Quintus Fabius Maximus was made a commander in chief and also a temporary dictator.

This somewhat cowardly action was obviously not all that favored amongst the Roman warriors who gave Fabius a title of Cunctator which signified “delayer” since he appeared to stay away from fight during a period when Italy was getting all beaten up by its opponents. Nevertheless, this ended up being a masterstroke. Fabius’ constant jab at Hannibal’s power damaged the last’s charge capacities and increased numerous prisoners for the Romans. In any case, soon, Fabius got out of favor in Rome, since his strategies did not prompt a snappy end to the war and he was expelled from his post in the 216 BC election in Rome.

Battle of Lake Trasimene (217 BC)

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Following several unsuccessful endeavors, Hannibal used an innovative approach and marched his men around his enemy’s flank to make them run away from Rome. At that point by the shore of lake Trasimene, he was all readied to fight with his enemy. It was a finished achievement – the fight which went ahead to be known as the fight of Lake Trasimene witnessed a successful Carthaginian attack upon Roman emissary Flaminius and his armed force of around 25,000 men between Lake Trasimene and the hills at Cortona.

Hannibal managed a gigantic pass up wrecking the vast majority of the Roman armed force at the expense of negligible misfortune to his side. Roman general Flaminius got killed in this action. Around 6,000 infantries, who could escape from the combat zone were gotten by the Numidians and afterward were compelled to lay their arms and surrender. This thrashing had an immense mental impact on the Romans – for it sent swells of frenzy in Rome, and they began having questions on the future of their city.

Battle of Trebia (218 BC)

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Led by Roman military under Sempronius Longus and Hannibal, this battle of Trebia was a noteworthy fight between the Carthaginians based in Italy in 218 BC. The Carthaginians cleverly caught a supply station that served as a major reason for the Romans to start a fight at Trebia. They had tofight after a tiring travel, plus they were all hungry – so the outcome was: the majority of them were not able to fight to their utmost extent.

With 4000 cavalries and 40,000 infantries, Sempronius Longus began the attack at Trebia. On the other side, Hannibal had a blend of Celtic,African and Spanish infantry. He also had 10,000 cavalries with huge war elephants. Hannibal’s troop-attacked the greater part of the Romans from the front, back and sides. In the end, the Romans had to face a huge loss with only 20,000 men left out of total 40,000.

Hannibal’s crossing of the Alps

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Hannibal’s crossing of the Alpsis beyond question one of the greatest incidentsin the second Punic war.This is the incident when Hannibal crossed the Alps to find the Romans guarding off. Actually, Hannibal’s course while crossing the Alps was topic of discussion among the students of history with a significant number of them giving their own records on the subject. Notwithstanding, the walk of Hannibal and his armed force is a huge topic of legends right up ’til the present time.

Hannibal knew a lot about the then state of Rome. He had his Gallic spies all over the Rome. He later settled on the most fortunate time to work out a surprise fight and began his armed force’s walk over the Alps, which used to be weakly habituated around then. From the attack of Sanctum to the walk through the Pyrenees and Rhone and afterward the outrageous climb and drop on the alps – Hannibal’s intersection of Alps was one of his significant accomplishments in the second Punic war, and also the most commended accomplishment of any military power in the ancient times.

See Also,

10 Facts about Hannibal Barca that you didn’t know

 

Gallic uprisings

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During a period when Hannibal was walking a longtriptogether with his infantry, war elephants and cavalry, the Romans confronted a solid uprise amongst the Gallic tribes – further deteriorating the state for them. The Gallic populace predominantly comprised of the Insubres and Boii. These two had already settled strategic relationships with the Carthaginians. Despite the fact that these tribes scorned the Romans, they were never ready to do much about it as a result of their constrained force.

However, when the Carthaginians began their crusade against Rome, the Gallic tribes willingly hit a union with them to battle the Romans in the front. They began by inhabiting the Roman states of Cremona and Placentia. Furthermore, the whole north of Italy went under insurgency, with both Gallic and Ligurian troops reinforcing Hannibal’s armed force back by an extra 40,000 men.

10 Extensive use of Intelligence

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The use of knowledge and intelligence had a crucial role in determining the wars that took place time and again. With an unexpected bolster he got from his Gallic partners, Hannibal was constantly sustained with vital information regarding what was going on in Rome at those times. Indeed, he had his spies all over Rome; what’s more, they even broke into the senate of ancient Rome. Mastering an intelligence service, Hannibal made some remarkable triumphs thanks to his clever mind.

Scipio Africanus, the popular Roman general on the other hand,tried to reinforce the Roman insight as much as he could. His real triumphs in the war were altogether subject to knowledge and intelligence. At the point when the spies were trapped, they would get rebuffed rather cruelly. The same happened to a Carthaginian spy in Rome, who should have been a Roman subject. He got his hands slaughtered as a penalty.

 

 

 

Joanne Shelby

Joanne holds an M.A. in History from Cardiff School of History, Archeology and Religion. She is very much interested in studying and exploring the history of the civilizations across the world.